Speech Disorders- Types | Physiological & Psychological Causes | Remedy

Speech Disorders are signified as a barrier in the jumble of communication wherein the normal speech or conversation is distorted. It can be classified by stammering and a speech defect called lisps. 

“All sane human beings talk, but almost half of the world’s people are totally illiterate, and the actual use of reading and writing is an asset of a scarce minority” – Jakobson.

Speech is a type of language in which lucid sounds or words are used to transfer meaning because it is a potent form of communication. Speech is a motor-mental skill that not only demands the balance of various squad of muscles of articulated operation, but it also includes a psychological viewpoint that is the link of connotation with the sound constructed.

Speech Disorders

Speech can be defined as cognition of what people say, and the capacity to converse in a process opposite person can perceive. When this element is impaired or dysfunctional in an individual, then it is known as a Speech disorder.

1-Lisps:

Lisps involve letter-sound exchange like “th” pronounced for S or Z and W as R. The root cause of lisps is the malformation of teeth, lips, and jaw. It can also occur because of the expansion between the upper forefront teeth.

2-Stammering:

It is characterized by muddled, monotonous speech escorted by convulsions of the muscles of diaphragm and throat. The origin of this starts from respiratory interruption because of fragmentary or overall clumsiness of muscles involved in speech.

Types of Speech Disorders:

  • Tongue-tie Speech Disorder

We have heard or experienced many times about being tongue-tied when we meet someone or are astonished. But tongue-tie is a speech disorder where tongue’s span of movement is limited.

  • Dyslexia

A learning disorder where an individual experiences complications in understanding letters, numbers, or in speaking and reading. Wernicke’s area is severely impaired resulting in sparse learning, pronouncing, and understanding academically.

  • Aphasia

A dialect or language disorder characterized by a defect in an individual’s potential to converse effectively. It can also be seen as a defect in language that destroys the creation of articulated speech involved in the potential of reading and writing. Aphasia can result due to head injuries like wounds or cuts in the brain, brain surgery, and emotional pain.

  • Apraxia of Speech

It is symbolized by stroke or continuous ailment discordant with the creation of speech, sounds, and reorganization of sounds in a word. It is caused due to tiredness, mental exhaustion, and inability. Such people are unable to express themselves in a right and accurate manner.

  • Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that weakens the potential to speak and correspond. The person undergoes social isolation, lack of growth in language, and conversational skills. The symptoms include intense and monotonous actions, error in emotional intelligence, and shortcoming at socializing.

  • Transient Ischemic Attack

A temporary stroke-like attack that regardless of becoming stable within a short period or span then too needs prompt medical observation to discriminate from a genuine stroke. It comes with caution of forthcoming stroke and also a chance to avert it. This condition is caused when a stroke forms a lump that obstructs blood from imparting to the part of the brain.

  • Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD)

It is also known as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). Children find it troublesome to utter sounds, one vowel with or without consonants and words. Broca, left frontal lobe involved in speech interpretation has an issue in mastering to budge the body parts required for speech. There is a scarcity of equilibrium between the brain and the muscle.

  • Mumbling

It is characterized by slurred speech because of lethargy in the jaw, tongue, and lips. The source can also be seen due to the immobility of articulated part of the body or deficiency in the growth of muscles of the tongue.

  • Hotchpotch

It is a swift and chaotic speech that is misjudged as stammering. In this disorder, the root cause is due to obstruction in motor management and speech blossom.

  • Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder

It is caused due to hindrance in usual magnification and enlargement of frontalis, orbicularis oris, laris oculi, buccinator, and zygomaticus. This disorder can also cause serious trouble with an inferior nasal concha, lacrimal bone, and mandible.

An individual can find difficulty in buccinator- part of the brain involved in eating, temporal zygomatic- involved in talking, diaphragm- involved in breathing, and Medulla oblongata- involved in swallowing.

  • Tongue Thrusting

This disorder is due to backward consumption, unfinished ingesting, deformity in velar and palatal fronting. An individual suffering from this defect undergoes a bulge on the head of the body till the teeth during eating, speaking, and while silent.

Speech Disorders

Physiological causes of Speech Disorders

  • Hearing Impairment is also a reason for Speech Disorder

A disorder where there is a loss of hearing or limited hearing ability. A child may find hurdles to master speaking skills, and an adult may suffer from the absence of social skills at the workplace.

1- Anakusis: It is characterized by the capability to understand or comprehend sounds.

2- Anacusis: It is characterized by complete deafness or inability to hear. Unilateral anacusis is a deafness in one ear, and Bilateral anacusis is a deafness in both ears.

  • Genetics

If a child or an adult is suffering from any of the speech disorders then one possible cause may be that the speech defect is running in genes and can be found out with the help of genetic study or genetic counseling.

  • Vulnerability to Ear-Piercing Sound:

This condition may occur when a person is exposed to a harsh or deafening sound which may tear the delicate eardrum causing hearing loss or partial hearing.
Hyperacusis is a condition where a vast range of periodic vibration is felt, and the subjective perception of sound gets destroyed. Symptoms include extreme insensitivity towards day-to-day sounds which can cause aches and ear-splitting.

  • Speech Disorder due to Ear Virus

A contaminated organism attacks and enters the tissues of ears causing infection or disease. They expand and cause dirt or toxins tremendously. Places, where there are dust, garbage, and construction sites, are highly immune to an ear infection.

  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD)

This state is characterized by trouble in organizing or concluding sounds. It arises as a result of ear and brain disconnection to produce or understand sounds.

Psychological causes of Speech Disorders

  • It varies from an inadequacy in articulation because it is not due to lack of absorbing skills but by imperfections in determining psychological trauma or articulated operation.
  • Families are having a history of neurotic disorders which results in unbalanced relationships, authoritative mother and permissive father, isolation, overprotectiveness, nagging, high anticipations, and constant comparisons with school mates.
  • The segment of the syndrome of impoverished habituation includes:
  • Hardships in apprehension.
  • Retarded and imperfections in speech.
  • A strenuous problem in conversation 
  • Antisocial categories of speech.
  • Bilingualism is a menace because it makes conversation with people burdensome as well as on self-adaptation as acquaintance with two languages distinguishes oneself from other individuals that steer emotions of mediocracy.
  • Speech Disorders can mature during any period of the human lifespan.

Various barriers in Speech Development 

As speech involves the ability to understand what others say and the capacity to speak so that the opposite person can comprehend the most common risk is

  • Excessive Crying: when a child continuously cries beyond the limit of normal range then that can cause strain on vocal cords.
  • Difficulty in Comprehension: It is defined by the capacity to comprehend what others say, but if the child is unable to understand what the opposite person is trying to convey then this condition can lead to delayed speech. A child can understand vocabulary is very crucial.

Social Trauma & Speech Disorders

People with speech disorders are often mocked, become an object of jokes, seen as a poor soul or felt pity son. These situations can lead to depression or trigger self-confidence issues.

Signs and Symptoms of Speech Disorders

  • Monotonous and repetitive speech.
  • Attach additional words in speech.
  • Lengthening sentences or words.
  • Abnormal bodily motions during speaking like involuntary shaking of head frequently.
  • Exasperation during a conversation.
  • Continuous halts while communicating.
  • Anomalous deviation in voice

Remedy for Speech Disorders

  • Oral exercises for a few minutes can help improve speech.
  • Vocabulary tests aid an individual to enhance his/her speech.
  • Speech therapy under the guidance of a therapist can aid in improving facial nerves and muscles.
  • People with speech disorders often undergo shyness, anxiety, low, and mental trauma felt during speaking so effective counseling therapy from a psychologist can help them deal with it.
  • Sign language like subtitles and lip-reading.

Speech Disorders

How Parents can reduce the effect of Speech Disorders in their kids?

Parents can actually reduce the effect of speech disorders in their kids by helping in many ways. Here are a few suggestions: 

  • Speak patiently and clearly to kids.
  • Copy what your child says to convey that you can understand their speech.
  • Make a chart full of pictures to show kids things they find difficult to perceive or get confused.
  • Ask kids questions to check if they can comprehend efficiently.
  • Play games and conduct activities by placing a box full of objects and make them identify and spell it correctly.
  • Watch a film with children and ask about their views on it to check their grasping skills.

Importance of speech in Communication: 

Speech performs various crucial roles like:

  • It is a superior device for conversation.
  • Self and social analysis
  • The gratification of desires and necessities.
  • Scholastic accomplishments.
  • Control on perception and emotion of other individuals.
  • Impact on the etiquette of others.

Essentials in learning to speak

  • Maturation of speech mechanism.
  • Cognitive development to perceive and speak.
  • A perfect role model to impersonate.
  • Regular speech exercises.
  • Parental and closed family guidance or motivation.
  • Barriers to learning to speak.
  • Low IQ can become a hindrance to linguistic superiority.
  • Socio-economic strata play an essential role where a higher class kid has access to learning quickly and while lower-class kids do not have a lot of options to learn.
  • A child from a nuclear family learns quickly because of the constant parental attention while a child from a large family may lag due to divided attention.

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