What is the yellow layer on your tooth & How to get rid of it? | ScienceMonk

Ever noticed, the rough yellow sheet over your tooth surface after every lunch, breakfast, dinner, or any ongoing snack in our day to day routine. What exactly is this yellow layer onto the tooth surface, and why is it rough? The yellow layer seen on our tooth surface is nothing but a plaque biofilm.

The plaque biofilm is nothing but an arrangement of various microbes coming together through our different modes of food habitats and secrets acids and enzymes.

Plaque Biofilm

They proved a threat to the tooth as this weakens the enamel and this causing caries. The microbial plaque biofilm growth occurs within hours, and it must be removed entirely at least once every 48 hours it also prevents inflammation.

The American Dental Association recommend brushing twice a day and using floss, and other interdental cleaners. It effectively removes the microbial plaque biofilm and prevents gingivitis (inflammation of the gingiva)

Various modes to prevent plaque Biofilm accumulation and some cleansing methods

  • ToothBrush– Toothbrushes vary in size and design as well as in length, hardness, and arrangement of bristles. The acceptable dimensions, according to ADA, is 1-1.25 in long and 5/16-3/8 in wide, 2-4 rows of bristles and 5-12 tufts per row.
  • ToothBrush Design– Toothbrush bristles are grouped in tufts and are usually arranged in 3-4 rows. Two types of bristles material are used in toothbrushes Natural bristles from HOGS and Artificial Filaments made of NYLON. Both remove microbial plaque film effectively.

A-) Powered Toothbrushes

The first powered toothbrush was created in Switzerland. The powered toothbrushes are the ongoing trend they have oscillating and rotational motions, and some brushes use low-frequency acoustic energy to enhance cleaning ability. The frequency at which the brush head oscillates should be in the range of 8500-9000 oscillations per minute.

Plaque Biofilm

Studies have shown that the powered toothbrushes have slightly better plaque biofilm removal than the manual toothbrushes in short term clinical triads. Patient acceptance of powered toothbrushes has been good.

B-) Dentifrices

People have used various compounds such as pumice, oyster, shells, and chalk to clean their teeth since around 5000 BC. Dentifrices help reducing caries, plaque, gingivitis, calculus, stains, halitosis (bad breath) and hypersensitivity.

Some ingredients provide therapeutic benefits, while others are additives. The Non Dentifrice Ingredients include the binders, surfactants, buffering agents, humectants, preservatives, sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes.

C-) Caries Prevention

Caries is simply the result of a series of demineralization/remineralization cycles over time.

  1. One of the most effective methods to prevent caries is to promote remineralization and slowing down remineralization. These can be obtained by fluoride therapy.
  2. Fluorides presence in low concentration and high frequency is more effective ar preventing caries than high levels of fluoride used in low frequency.Plaque Biofilm
  3. Fluoridates dentifrice is the best method for delivering fluoride to the tooth surface.
  4. Fluorides can be delivered in several different chemical forms :
  • Stannous Fluoride– stannous fluoride also called as tin fluoride SnF2.
  • Sodium Fluoride– sodium fluoride NaF has greater stability than stannous fluoride and thus is easier to formulate. Sodium Fluoride delivers a highly reactive fluoride ion.
  • Sodium Monofluorophosphate– sodium monofluorophosphate MPF is a fluoridated compound that requires enzymatic activation by the salivary enzyme ( alkaline phosphatase) to release bioavailable fluoride.

D-) Anticalculus

  1. The chemical agents used to control calculus are-
    • Pyrophosphate – it occurs naturally in the saliva and plays an important role in inhibiting calculus formation. These molecules chelate calcium, slowing the rate of nucleation(crystal formation) and calcification of plaque.

The pyrophosphate binds to calcium in a growing crystal, essentially blunting further crystal growth at that site and effectively controls decreasing calculus buildup. Crest Tartar control contains 3.3% of pyrophosphate, which controls tartar.

    • Sodium Hexametaphosphate – It is a large polyphosphate molecule and had multiple calcium-binding sites in one molecule. It has a very effective calculus inhibitor. Sodium HMP is too large of a molecule to enter into tooth enamel, so there is no danger of it entering between enamel rods and sequestering calcium from sound enamel. 

Zinc and zinc salts ( zinc citrate, zinc chloride, zinc lactate) are used in some tartar control dentifrices and oral rinses moderately effective in controlling calculus.

    • Gantrez– it is a copolymer of methyl vinyl ether (PVM) and maleic acid (MA) and acts as a chelating agent. It is an ingredient in Colgate Total. It acts by binding (chelating) calcium ions, thus inhibiting plaque mineralization.

E-) Whitening Agents

Stain control and whitening are key benefits of modern dentifrices. Dentifrices primarily work against extrinsic stains. Bleaching products that contain hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide (i.e.- dental office bleaching trays) address Intrinsic as well as extrinsic stains.

  • Extrinsic Stains– can be relatively easily removed on a daily basis by proper tooth brushing with dentifrice.
  • Intrinsic Stains– These are stains and discolorations that are located below the enamel surface. Due to their diverse etiology, stain treatment varies with the cause. Bleaching is usually used to remove or minimize Intrinsic Discolorations.

F-) Interdental Cleaning Aids

  • Any toothbrush regardless of the brushing method used does not completely remove interdental plaque biofilm.
  • Tissue destruction associated with periodontal diseases often leaves large open spaces between teeth and long exposed root surfaces with anatomic concavities.
  • These shelter the plaque biofilm and are both difficult for the patient.
  • These need to be cleansed and can be done by interproximal cleaning, and they should be recommended based on the size of interdental spaces.
  • Common aids used are dental floss and interdental cleaners such as wooden or plastic tips and interdental brushes.

G-) Dental Floss

Dental floss is the most widely recommended tool for the removal of the plaque biofilm from proximal tooth surfaces.

  • Floss is made from nylon filaments or plastic monofilaments and comes in waxed, unwaxed, thick, thin and flavored varieties.
  • They all work equally well according to individual choices.
  • Factors influencing the choice of dental floss include the tightness of tooth contacts, the roughness of proximal surfaces, and the patient’s manual dexterity.
  • Recommendations about the floss type should be based on ease of use and personal preference.

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